Chandra Shekhar Azad

Written by Super User. Posted in Pre-Independence

Chandra Shekhar Azad (23 July 1906 - 27 February 1931), popularly known as Azad, was an Industrial revolutionary who reorganised the Hindustan Republican Association under the new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after the death of its founder Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan.

He is considered to be the mentor of Bhagat Singh and chief strategist of the HSRA.

Azad was born Chandra Shekhar Tiwari on 23 July 1906 in Bhavra village, in the present-day Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh. 

In December 1921, when Mohandas K. Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement, Chandra Shekhar, then a 15 year old student, joined. As a result, he was arrested. On being produced before a magistrate, he gave his name as Azad, his father's name as Swatantrata and his residence as Jail. From that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad among the people.

After suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad became more aggressive. He committed himself to achieve complete independence by any means. Azad also believed that India's future lay in socialism.

Azad died as Alfred Park in Allahabad on 27 February when he was returning from Anand Bhawan and as some records have that he met Jawahar Lal Nehru and had verbal fight with him after which he left for Alfred Park to meet his other revolutionary friend Sukhdev Raj. The police surround him in the park citing information from an informer. He was wounded in the process of defending himself and Sukhdev Raj and killed three policemen and wounded some others. His actions made it possible for Sukhdev Raj to escape. After a long shootout, holding true to his pledge to never be captured alive, he shot himself dead with his last bullet.

The body was sent to Rasulabad Ghat for cremation without informing general publc. As it came to light, people surrounded the park where the incident had taken place. They chanted slogans againts the British rule and praised Azad.

[Courtesy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandra_Shekhar_Azad]

Shivaram Hari Rajguru

Written by Super User. Posted in Pre-Independence

Shivaram Hari Rajguru (24 August 1908 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian revolutionary from Maharashtra.

Rajguru was born at Khed, near Pune, India. He was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, who wanted India to be freed from British rule by any means necessary. He believed that ferocity against oppression was far more effective against British rule than the nonviolent civil disobedience preferred by Mahatma Gandhi.

Rajguru became a colleague of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev, and took part in the murder of a British police officer, J. P. Saunders, at Lahore in 1928. Their actions were to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai who had died a fortnight after being hit by police while on a march protesting the Simon Commission. The feeling was that Rai's death resulted from the police action, although he had addressed a meeting later.

The three men and 21 other co-conspirators were tried under the provisions of a regulation that was introduced in 1930 specifically for that purpose. All three were convicted of the crime and hanged on 23 March 1931. They were cremated at Hussainiwala at the banks of the Sutlej river in the Ferozepur district of Punjab.

His birthplace of Khed has since been renamed as Rajgurunagar in his honour. Rajguru Market, a shopping complex at Hisar, Haryana, was named in his honour in 1953

Sukhdev Thapar

Written by Super User. Posted in Pre-Independence

Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1907-23 March 1931) was a revolutionary, born in Ludhiana, Punjab, British India.

Sukhdev Thapar was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), and organised revolutionary cells in Punjab and other areas of North India. He also taught at the National College in Lahore, where he and other revolutionaries also established the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, an organisation involved in various activities intended mainly to prepare youths for the struggle for independence and putting an end to communalism.

Sukhdev is best remembered for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case of 18 December 1928 and its aftermath. He was an accomplice of Bhagat Singh, and Shivaram Rajguru, whose conspiracy led to the assassination of Deputy Superintendent of Police, J. P. Saunders in 1928 in response to the violent death of a veteran leader, Lala Lajpat Rai. After the Central Assembly Hall bombings in New Delhi on 8 April 1929, the conspirators were arrested and convicted of their crime. 

On 23 March 1931, the three men were hanged. Their bodies were secretly cremated on the banks of the Satluj river.

Saheed Bhagat Singh

Written by Super User. Posted in Pre-Independence

Bhagat Singh, 27/28 September 1907 – 23 March 1931, was an Indian socialist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. He is often referred to as "Shaheed Bhagat Singh", the word "Shaheed" meaning "martyr" in a number of South Asian and Middle Eastern languages. Born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj, as a teenager Singh studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies. He was involved in several revolutionary organisations and became prominent in the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), which changed its name to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928.

Seeking revenge for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Singh was involved in the murder of British police officer John Saunders. He eluded efforts by the police to capture him. Soon after, together with Batukeshwar Dutt, he and an accomplice threw two bombs and leaflets inside the Central Legislative Assembly. The two men were arrested, as they had planned to be. Held on this charge, he gained widespread national support when he underwent a 116-day fast in jail, demanding equal rights for European prisoners and those Indians imprisoned for what he believed were political reasons. During this time, sufficient evidence was brought against him for a conviction in the Saunders case, after trial by a Special Tribunal and appeal at the Privy Council in England. He was convicted and subsequently hanged for his participation in the murder, aged 23.

His legacy prompted youth in India to begin fighting for Indian independence and he continues to be a youth idol in modern India, as well as the inspiration for several films. He is commemorated with a large bronze statue in the Parliament of India, as well as a range of other memorials.

Website: 

  1. http://www.shahidbhagatsingh.org/
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagat_Singh